Biotech and Breakthroughs in Immuno-Oncology

Urol Clin North Am. 2020 Nov;47(4):511-521. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2020.07.006. Epub 2020 Sep 9.


The age of immuno-oncology has ushered in a rush within the biopharmaceutical industry. This intense focus has been characterized as a frenzy or overhyped, but represents a substantial investment in new products that hope to harness the immune system against cancer. Such agents include next-generation checkpoint antagonists, immune costimulatory agonists, and a diverse array of novel mechanisms of action and therapeutic modalities targeting immune cell types and the interplay of the host and tumor at the immune synapse. This article surveys the clinical development and investment activity with Immuno-Oncology, specifically prostate, kidney, and bladder cancers.

Keywords: Checkpoint inhibitors; Immuno-oncology; Immunotherapy; Tumor microenvironment; Urologic oncology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products / therapeutic use*
  • Biotechnology / methods
  • Biotechnology / trends*
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Male
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Microenvironment / drug effects*
  • Tumor Microenvironment / immunology
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / mortality
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Biological Products