Optimal extent of initial parathyroid resection in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1: A meta-analysis

Surgery. 2021 Feb;169(2):302-310. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2020.08.021. Epub 2020 Sep 30.


Background: Hyperparathyroidism is an almost universal feature of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing initial operative treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism complicating multiple endocrine neoplasia 1.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed with a priori defined exclusion criteria for studies comparing total parathyroidectomy, subtotal parathyroidectomy, and less than subtotal parathyroidectomy.

Results: Twenty-one studies incorporating 1,131 patients (272 undergoing total parathyroidectomy, 510 subtotal parathyroidectomy, and 349 less than subtotal parathyroidectomy) were identified. Pooled results revealed increased risk for long-term hypoparathyroidism in total parathyroidectomy patients (relative risk 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.31; P = .009) versus those undergoing subtotal parathyroidectomy. In the less than subtotal parathyroidectomy or subtotal parathyroidectomy comparison group, a greater risk for recurrence of hyperparathyroidism (relative risk 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.79; P = .02), persistence of hyperparathyroidism (relative risk 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.41; P = .0001), and reoperation for hyperparathyroidism (relative risk 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.65-3.73; P < .0001) was noted for less than subtotal parathyroidectomy patients, albeit with lesser risk for long-term for hypoparathyroidism (relative risk 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.75; P = .002).

Conclusion: Subtotal parathyroidectomy compares favorably to total parathyroidectomy, exhibiting similar recurrence and persistence rates with a decreased propensity for long-term postoperative hypoparathyroidism. The benefit of the decreased risk of hypoparathyroidism in less than subtotal parathyroidectomy is negated by the increase in the risk for recurrence, persistence, and reoperation. Future studies evaluating the performance of less than subtotal parathyroidectomy in specific multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 phenotypes should be pursued in an effort to delineate a patient-tailored, operative approach that optimizes long-term outcomes.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery*
  • Hypoparathyroidism / epidemiology*
  • Hypoparathyroidism / etiology
  • Hypoparathyroidism / prevention & control
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications*
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery
  • Parathyroid Glands / pathology
  • Parathyroid Glands / surgery
  • Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects
  • Parathyroidectomy / methods*
  • Parathyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Recurrence
  • Reoperation / statistics & numerical data
  • Treatment Outcome