Mefloquine is a highly effective drug for the treatment of falciparum malaria among adults, but studies of its effects on children are lacking. An open, noncomparative trial of mefloquine was therefore carried out among 84 children aged 5-12 years who were patients at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. The drug was administered as a single dose of 18-29 mg base per kg body weight. Eighty-two of the 84 children completed a 42-day period of post-treatment observation. The drug was well tolerated also by 11 children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and all the children in the study cleared their parasitaemia initially (average clearance time, 65 hours). Furthermore, the clinical-chemical parameters measured exhibited no drug-related changes during the study. The radical cure rate of nearly 98% and high tolerance indicate that mefloquine can be used effectively and safely for the treatment of children aged 5-12 years who are suffering from uncomplicated falciparum malaria.