The relationship between serum levels of LOX-1 ligand containing ApoAI as a novel marker of dysfunctional HDL and coronary artery calcification in middle-aged Japanese men

Atherosclerosis. 2020 Nov:313:20-25. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.09.013. Epub 2020 Sep 23.


Background and aims: Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond HDL concentrations. Recently, a novel method has been introduced to measure LOX-1 ligand containing apolipoprotein AI (LAA), which is an indicator of various types of modified HDL with binding capacity to LOX-1 and related to impaired anti-atherogenic functions of HDL. This study aimed to examine the relationship between LAA as a novel marker of dysfunctional HDL and coronary artery calcification (CAC).

Methods: We selected 910 community-dwelling Japanese men aged 40-79 years without a history of CVD. The odds ratios per 1SD of LAA for the presence of CAC (Agatston score >10) were estimated using logistic regression model adjusted for confounders, including HDL-C or HDL particle (HDL-P) concentration. In addition, we performed further analysis stratified by age (<65 and ≥ 65 years).

Results: The mean age of the participants was 63.6 years, and the median LAA was 187.0 ng/mL. The prevalent CAC was 46.2%. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1SD of LAA for CAC was 1.14 (0.96-1.36) for all participants. After stratification by age, multivariable adjusted odds ratios per 1SD of LAA were 1.34 (1.02-1.76) and 0.97 (0.77-1.23) in men aged <65 and ≥ 65 years, respectively.

Conclusions: The present study showed that LAA was associated with CAC independent of HDL-C or HDL-P in middle-aged Japanese men. This finding suggests that LAA might be an early marker for CVD events. Future longitudinal studies are warranted.

Keywords: Coronary artery calcification; Japan; LOX-1 ligand containing ApoAI; Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1; Modified high-density lipoprotein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / diagnosis
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / epidemiology
  • Coronary Vessels
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Ligands
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Scavenger Receptors, Class E
  • Vascular Calcification* / diagnostic imaging
  • Vascular Calcification* / epidemiology


  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Ligands
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • Scavenger Receptors, Class E