Risk factors for adverse outcomes among pregnant and postpartum women with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19 in Brazil

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2020 Oct 4. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.13407. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate whether clinical and social risk factors are associated with negative outcomes for COVID-19 disease among Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women.

Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of the official Acute Respiratory Syndrome Surveillance System database. Pregnant and postpartum women diagnosed with COVID-19 ARDS until July 14, 2020, were included. Adverse outcomes were a composite endpoint of either death, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), or mechanical ventilation. Risk factors were examined by multiple logistic regression.

Results: There were 2475 cases of COVID-19 ARDS. Among them, 23.8% of women had the composite endpoint and 8.2% died. Of those who died, 5.9% were not hospitalized, 39.7% were not admitted to the ICU, 42.6% did not receive mechanical ventilation, and 25.5% did not have access to respiratory support. Multivariate analysis showed that postpartum period, age over 35 years, obesity, diabetes, black ethnicity, living in a peri-urban area, no access to Family Health Strategy, or living more than 100 km from the notification hospital were associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: Clinical and social risk factors and barriers to access health care are associated with adverse outcomes among maternal cases of COVID-19 ARDS in Brazil.

Keywords: COVID-19; Health services accessibility; Health status indicators; Maternal death.