Speckle tracking echocardiography in a patient with viral myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction

J Cardiol Cases. 2020 Jul 7;22(4):184-191. doi: 10.1016/j.jccase.2020.06.011. eCollection 2020 Oct.


The present case of a patient with acute myocarditis with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction at the acute stage illustrates the obvious impairment of circumferential and rotational deformation, which can be documented by speckle tracking echocardiography. Thus, qualitative patterns of LV twist, radial strain, and circumferential layer strain, might be a new approach to detect acute myocarditis. The early diagnosis of acute myocarditis by echocardiography is important because of the considerable risk of cardiovascular morbidity as documented by the occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction presumably induced by inflammatory process in this case. <Learning objective: The compound of myocardial deformations caused by left ventricular subendomyocardial and subepimyocardial fibers may be a crucial diagnostic target in cardiac diseases. The predominant involvement of viral myocarditis of the outer myocardial layers might induce impairment of circumferential and rotational deformation, which can potentially serve as a new diagnostic key by echocardiography. In contrast, left ventricular ejection fraction and longitudinal deformation are often observed within normal ranges in patients with acute myocarditis. Acute myocardial infarction as a major cardiac event in acute stage of myocarditis causes completely different deformation patterns, mainly by the predominant involvement of the inner myocardial layers inducing severe pathologies of territorial longitudinal deformation. Patients with suspected acute myocarditis and abnormal findings of circumferential and rotational deformation should undergo additional diagnostic procedures as cardiac magnetic resonance and myocardial biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.>.

Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction layered-specific strain; Echocardiography; Myocarditis; Rotation rate.