Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Humoral Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike

Cell Rep Med. 2020 Oct 20;1(7):100126. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100126. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths. The Spike glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 mediate viral entry and are the main targets for neutralizing antibodies. Understanding the antibody response directed against SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the development of vaccine, therapeutic, and public health interventions. Here, we perform a cross-sectional study on 106 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals to evaluate humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike. Most infected individuals elicit anti-Spike antibodies within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. The levels of receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) persist over time, and the levels of anti-RBD IgM decrease after symptom resolution. Although most individuals develop neutralizing antibodies within 2 weeks of infection, the level of neutralizing activity is significantly decreased over time. Our results highlight the importance of studying the persistence of neutralizing activity upon natural SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19; IgG; IgM; RBD; SARS-CoV-2; Spike glycoproteins; coronavirus; cross-reactivity, IgA; neutralization.