Background: Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia is common in children. Catheter ablation is increasingly used as a first-line therapy with a high acute success rate, but recurrence during follow-up remains a concern. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence after accessory pathway (AP) ablation.
Methods: Retrospective cohort study including patients who underwent AP ablation between 2013 and 2018. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between patient and procedural characteristics and recurrence during follow-up.
Results: From 558 AP ablation procedure, 542 (97%) were acutely successful. During a median follow-up of 0.4 (interquartile range, 0.1-1.4) years, there were 42 (8%) patients with documented recurrence. On univariate analysis, early recurrence was associated with younger age, congenital heart disease, multiple AP, AP location (right sided and posteroseptal versus left sided), cryoablation (versus radiofrequency), empirical ablation, the lack of full power radiofrequency lesions (<50 W), radiofrequency consolidation time <90 seconds and the use of fluoroscopy without a 3-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system. On multivariable analysis, only multiple AP (hazard ratio, 2.78 [95% CI, 1.063-4.74]) and radiofrequency consolidation time < 90 seconds (hazard ratio, 4.38 [95% CI, 1.92-9.51]) remained significantly associated with early recurrence; this association remained true when analyzed in subgroups by pathway location for right and left free wall AP.
Conclusions: In our institutional experience, radiofrequency consolidation time <90 seconds after ablation of AP was associated with an increased risk of early recurrence.
Keywords: catheter ablation; heart diseases; risk factors; syndrome; tachycardia.