Background: Scleroderma en coup de sabre (ECDS) and Parry-Romberg idiopathic hemifacial atrophy (IHA) may affect the eyes, oral cavity, teeth and possibly the brain.
Objective: Systematic follow-up study of ECDS/IHA-associated manifestations including ophthalmic and dental status.
Methods: Medical records of ECDS and IHA patients diagnosed in a 40-year period (1975-2015) were reviewed, and patients were re-examined.
Results: Thirty-five patients were included. Twenty-two patients (63%) had ECDS and 4 patients (11%) IHA. In 9 cases (26%), ECDS and IHA were found in the same patient. The ipsilateral eye was affected in 9 patients (26%). Ipsilateral abnormalities of the teeth and the tongue were found in 13 (46%) out of 28 examined. Eleven (31%) had extrafacial scleroderma on the trunk or the extremities. Neurological findings were not verified as ECDS/IHA related.
Conclusion: ECDS and IHA are related and often overlap with concomitant affections of the connective tissues of the face on the ipsilateral side. Ocular and dental abnormalities are common and follow the distribution of the primary affection, for example, a paramedian line in the front and segmental affection of the maxilla and the mandible. The affections point to predisposing dysmorphogenetic events in embryonal life affecting the face, with abnormality of crest cells at the stage when they migrate from behind over the scalp or laterally to the face to mix up with mesenchymal tissues of the frontonasal, maxillary and mandibular processes. The study emphasizes that routine evaluation of ECDS and IHA should include ophthalmological and dental specialist examinations.
Keywords: Connective tissue; Crest cell migration; Dysmorphogenesis; Linearity; Manifestations; Overlap.
© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.