Forty patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic broncho-pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection entered a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of colistin inhalation. Active treatment consisted of inhalation of colistin one million units twice daily for three months and was compared to placebo inhalations of isotonic saline. Significantly more patients in the colistin inhalation group completed the study as compared to the placebo group (18 versus 11). Colistin treatment was superior to placebo treatment in terms of a significantly better clinical symptom score, maintenance of pulmonary function and inflammatory parameters. We recommend colistin inhalation therapy for cystic fibrosis patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection as a supplementary treatment to frequent courses of intravenous anti-pseudomonas chemotherapy.