Rebound effect in deep brain stimulation for essential tremor and symptom severity estimation from neural data

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2020 Jul:2020:3621-3624. doi: 10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9175908.

Abstract

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a safe and established treatment for essential tremor (ET). However, there remains considerable room for improvement due to concerns associated with the initial implant surgery, semi-regular revision surgeries for battery replacements, and side effects including paresthesia, gait ataxia, and emotional disinhibition that have been associated with continuous, or conventional, DBS (cDBS) treatment. Adaptive DBS (aDBS) seeks to ameliorate some of these concerns by using feedback from either an external wearable or implanted sensor to modulate stimulation parameters as needed. aDBS has been demonstrated to be as or more effective than cDBS, but the purely binary control system most commonly deployed by aDBS systems likely still provides sub-optimal treatment and may introduce new issues. One example of these issues is rebound effect, in which the tremor symptoms of an ET patient receiving DBS therapy temporarily worsen after cessation of stimulation before leveling out to a steady state. Here is presented a quantitative analysis of rebound effect in 3 patients receiving DBS for ET. Rebound was evident in all 3 patients by both clinical assessment and inertial measurement unit data, peaking by the latter at Tp = 6.65 minutes after cessation of stimulation. Using features extracted from neural data, linear regression was applied to predict tremor severity, with $R_{avg{\text{ }}}^2 = 0.82$. These results strongly suggest that rebound effect and the additional information made available by rebound effect should be considered and exploited when designing novel aDBS systems.

MeSH terms

  • Deep Brain Stimulation*
  • Essential Tremor* / therapy
  • Gait Ataxia
  • Humans
  • Paresthesia
  • Tremor