Pregnancy in essential thrombocythemia (ET) is associated with increased risk of obstetric complications. We retrospectively evaluated risk factors in 121 pregnancies in 52 ET women seen at 3 affiliate hospitals. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed at the α = 0.10 level. Cell counts were characterized throughout pregnancy and correlated with outcomes using logistic modeling. The overall live birth rate was 69 %. 48.7 % of all women experienced a pregnancy complication, the most common being spontaneous abortion, which occurred in 26 % of all pregnancies. Maternal thrombosis and hemorrhage rates were 2.5 % and 5.8 %. On multivariable analysis, aspirin use (OR 0.29, p = 0.014, 90 % CI 0.118-0.658) and history of prior pregnancy loss (OR 3.86, p = 0.011, CI 1.49-9.15) were associated with decreased and increased pregnancy complications, respectively. A Markov model was used to analyze the probability of a future pregnancy complication based on initial pregnancy outcome. An ET woman who suffers a pregnancy complication has a 0.594 probability of a subsequent pregnancy complication, compared to a 0.367 probability if she didn't suffer a complication. However, despite this elevated risk, overall prognosis is good, with a >50 % probability of a successful pregnancy by the third attempt. Platelet counts decreased by 43 % in ET during pregnancy, with nadir at delivery and prompt recovery in the postpartum period. Women with larger declines in gestational platelet counts were less likely to suffer complications (p = 0.083). Our study provides important guidance to physicians treating ET women during pregnancy, including counseling information regarding risk assessment and expected trajectory of platelet levels.
Keywords: Essential thrombocythemia; Gestational cell counts; Myeloproliferative neoplasm; Polycythemia vera; Pregnancy.
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