In this paper, we reported the extraction process of five different flowering plants utilizing different dye extraction methods and solvents (ethanol and water) to choose the best dye removal process. The FTIR spectra revealed the presence of several clear functional groups for all five natural dyes. The analytical studies such as UV spectroscopy, column chromatography, and vacuum evaporation were performed to isolate the dyes from their solutions. The UV-Vis studies on the pigments of flower extracts indicated broad absorption peaks in the visible region including clear bandgaps. Among the studied pigments, Alternanthera ficoidea showed the lowest direct bandgap of 1.69 eV and an Urbach energy value of 6.33 meV. The dye extraction yield rate improvement was extended from 11.7 to 24.7% (water solvent) and 11.3-32.4% (ethanol solvent). Throughout the studies, it was observed that ethanol produced a better extraction for organic dyes than water as a solvent. Aging studies revealed that all the dyes at the room temperature showed better stability with minor changes in the observed optical parameters in oxygen-rich conditions; however, these parameters have shown significant variations at a 60 °C temperature.
Keywords: Absorption spectra; Ageing effect; Dye extraction methods; Materials science; Natural dyes; Pigment.
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