Purpose: Bone-tracer scintigraphy has an established role in diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis (CA) as it detects transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). Positron emission tomography (PET) with amyloid tracers has shown high sensitivity for detection of both ATTR and light-chain (AL) CA. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of 18F-flutemetamol in CA.
Methods: We enrolled patients with CA or non-amyloid heart failure (NA-HF), who underwent cardiac 18F-flutemetamol PET/MRI or PET/CT. Myocardial and blood pool standardized tracer uptake values (SUV) were estimated. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping/ extracellular volume (ECV) estimation were performed.
Results: We included 17 patients (12 with CA, 5 with NA-HF). PET/MRI was conducted in 13 patients, while PET/CT was conducted in 4. LGE was detected in 8 of 9 CA patients. Global relaxation time and ECV were higher in CA (1448 vs. 1326, P = 0.02 and 58.9 vs. 33.7%, P = 0.006, respectively). Positive PET studies were demonstrated in 2 of 12 patients with CA (AL and ATTR). Maximal and mean SUV did not differ between groups (2.21 vs. 1.69, P = 0.18 and 1.73 vs. 1.30, P = 0.13).
Conclusion: Although protein-independent binding is supported by our results, the diagnostic yield of PET was low. We demonstrate here for the first time the low sensitivity of PET for CA.
Keywords: Cardiac amyloidosis; amyloid-binding tracers; light-chain; molecular imaging; positron emission tomography; transthyretin.
© 2020. The Author(s).