Aim: To systematically review the effects of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions on body weight as a secondary outcome in people with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: The Ovid Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant pharmacological (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor agonist, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 [SGLT-2] inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitor and metformin) and lifestyle intervention studies (diet and exercise) for adults with type 1 diabetes reporting body weight change and HbA1c published from January 2000 to May 2020. Meta-analyses were performed for 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
Results: Thirty-three RCTs (n = 9344 participants), 26 pharmacological (on average 43.9 years, 83.1 kg, HbA1c 8.1%; 55.8% male) and seven lifestyle-based interventions (on average 37.0 years, 85.0 kg, HbA1c 8.1%; 84.6% male), were analysed. The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide 0.6 mg (mean difference [MD]: -2.22 kg [95% CI: -2.55 to -1.90]), 1.2 mg (MD: -3.74 kg [95% CI: -4.16 to -3.33]) and 1.8 mg (MD: -4.85 kg [95% CI: -5.29 to -4.41]), and the SGLT-2 inhibitors empagliflozin 2.5 mg (MD: -1.47 kg [95% CI: -2.23 to -0.71]), 10 mg (MD: -2.77 kg [95% CI: -3.24 to -2.31]) and 25 mg (MD: -3.06 kg [95% CI: -3.57 to -2.55]) and sotagliflozin 200 mg (MD: -2.40 kg [95% CI: -2.87 to -1.94]) and 400 mg (MD: -3.23 [95% CI: -3.73 to -2.72]) were associated with significant reductions in body weight. No significant effect on body weight was found for DPP-4 inhibitors, other GLP-1-receptor agonists, metformin, or for lifestyle interventions (i.e. exercise and diet).
Conclusions: In people with type 1 diabetes, several adjuvant pharmacological interventions showed weight reduction as a secondary outcome. Future studies in overweight people with type 1 diabetes are needed to establish whether the lifestyle and pharmacological interventions reviewed here have potential as components of complex interventions aimed at body weight reduction as a primary outcome.
Keywords: meta-analysis, systematic review, type 1 diabetes, weight control.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.