The roles of ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid and their interactions in frankincense resin production in Boswellia sacra trees growing in the drylands of Oman were studied. On March 18 (Experiment 1) and September 17 (Experiment 2), 2018, 32-year-old B. sacra trees with multiple trunks were selected at the Agricultural Experiment Station, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. Various lanolin pastes containing Ethrel, an ethylene-releasing compound; methyl jasmonate; sodium salicylate; and combinations of these compounds were applied to debarked wounds 15 mm in diameter on the trunks. After a certain period, the frankincense resin secreted from each wound was harvested and weighed. The anatomical characteristics of the resin ducts were also studied in the bark tissue near the upper end of each wound. The combination of Ethrel and methyl jasmonate greatly enhanced frankincense resin production within 7 days in both seasons. The application of methyl jasmonate alone, sodium salicylate alone or a combination of both did not affect resin production. These findings suggest a high possibility of artificial enhancement of frankincense resin production by the combined application of Ethrel and methyl jasmonate to B. sacra trees.