Boswellia dalzielii-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Inhibited Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Kasumi-1 Cells by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest

Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2020 Sep 22;2020:8898360. doi: 10.1155/2020/8898360. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) persists to be a major health problem especially among children as effective chemotherapy to combat the disease is yet to be available. Boswellia dalzielii is a well-known herb that is traditionally used for treatment and management of many diseases including degenerative diseases. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from the phytochemicals of B. dalzielii stem bark aqueous extract. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by carrying out Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Energy Filtered Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analyses. Antioxidant capacity of the nanoparticles was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the antiproliferative effect of the nanoparticles on Kasumi-1 leukemia cells was investigated using PrestoBlue assay. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to observe the effect of the nanoparticles on the leukemia cell cycle progression.

Results: Our findings revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were formed from electrons of the plant phytochemicals which include aromatic compounds, ethers, and alkynes. FESEM analysis revealed that the sizes of the nanoparticles range from 12 nm to 101 nm; however, DLS analysis estimated a larger average size of the nanoparticles (108.3 nm) because it measured the hydrodynamic radii of the nanoparticles. The zeta potential of the nanoparticles was -16 nm, and the XRD pattern of the nanoparticles has distinct peaks at 38.02°, 42.94°, 64.45°, 77.20°, and 81.47°, which is typical of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of silver. The Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) of the nanoparticles was estimated to be 300.91 μM Trolox/mg silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles inhibited Kasumi-1 cell proliferation. The half minimal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) that inhibited Kasumi-1 cell proliferation are 49.5 μg/ml and 13.25 μg/ml at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. The nanoparticles induced cell cycle arrest in the Kasumi-1 cells at S (5% increase) and G2/M (3% increase) phases.

Conclusion: The nanoparticles synthesized from the stem bark extract of B. dalzielii inhibit the growth of Kasumi-1 leukemia cells by activating cell cycle arrest; thus, they are potential antileukemic agents.