Thyroid and androgen receptor signaling are antagonized by CRYM in prostate cancer

Int J Cancer. 2020 Oct 9. doi: 10.1002/ijc.33332. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains a key approach in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). However, PCa inevitably relapses and becomes ADT resistant. Besides androgens, there is evidence that thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and its active form 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) are involved in the progression of PCa. Epidemiologic evidences show a higher incidence of PCa in men with elevated thyroid hormone levels. The thyroid hormone binding protein μ-Crystallin (CRYM) mediates intracellular thyroid hormone action by sequestering T3 and blocks its binding to cognate receptors (TRα/TRβ) in target tissues. We show in this study that low CRYM expression levels in PCa patients are associated with early BCR and poor prognosis. Moreover, we found a disease stage-specific expression of CRYM in PCa. CRYM counteracted thyroid and androgen signaling and blocked intracellular choline uptake. CRYM inversely correlated with [18F]fluoromethylcholine (FMC) levels in PET/MRI imaging of PCa patients. Our data suggest CRYM as a novel antagonist of T3- and androgen-mediated signaling in PCa. The role of CRYM could therefore be an essential control mechanism for the prevention of aggressive PCa growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Androgen Receptor; PSMA-PET; Prostate Cancer; Thyroid Hormone Receptor; μ-Crystallin.