Background: The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to characterize the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers on long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods: This prospective observational study included 322 consecutive patients with ACS undergoing PCI. Blood-derived biomarkers IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were assessed at the time point of ACS. Patients were followed-up for 6 years. Long-term cardiovascular mortality was our primary endpoint. Adjusted Cox-regression analysis was used for prediction of events.
Results: Elevated IL-6 values (≥3.3 pg/mL) emerged as an independent and the most powerful predictor for cardiovascular mortality: the ROC analysis showed that IL-6 was more accurate for cardiovascular mortality prediction as compared to hsCRP (IL-6: AUC = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.62-0.81; p = 0.009 vs hsCRP: AUC = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.41-0.72; p = 0.445). The positive predictive value of IL-6 for mortality was 9%, the negative predictive value 99%, sensitivity 94% and specificity 48%. The primary endpoint of long-term cardiovascular death occurred more frequently in patients with high vs low IL-6 (9.0% vs 0.5%, p = 0.001). The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with high IL-6 (≥3.3 pg/mL) values were at 8.6-fold higher hazard to die than those with low IL-6 (<3.3 pg/mL) levels (adj. hazard ratio [HR] = 8.60, 95%CI: 1.07-69.32; p = 0.043).
Conclusion: In the setting of ACS, high IL-6 values are associated with substantial long-term cardiovascular mortality. Further, IL-6 performs as a superior predictor for cardiovascular death as compared to hsCRP.
Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; Cardiovascular mortality; High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; Interleukin-6; Long-term; Powerful predictor.
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.