Genome wide analysis reveals genetic divergence between Goldsinny wrasse populations

BMC Genet. 2020 Oct 9;21(1):118. doi: 10.1186/s12863-020-00921-8.


Background: Marine fish populations are often characterized by high levels of gene flow and correspondingly low genetic divergence. This presents a challenge to define management units. Goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) is a heavily exploited species due to its importance as a cleaner-fish in commercial salmonid aquaculture. However, at the present, the population genetic structure of this species is still largely unresolved. Here, full-genome sequencing was used to produce the first genomic reference for this species, to study population-genomic divergence among four geographically distinct populations, and, to identify informative SNP markers for future studies.

Results: After construction of a de novo assembly, the genome was estimated to be highly polymorphic and of ~600Mbp in size. 33,235 SNPs were thereafter selected to assess genomic diversity and differentiation among four populations collected from Scandinavia, Scotland, and Spain. Global FST among these populations was 0.015-0.092. Approximately 4% of the investigated loci were identified as putative global outliers, and ~ 1% within Scandinavia. SNPs showing large divergence (FST > 0.15) were picked as candidate diagnostic markers for population assignment. One hundred seventy-three of the most diagnostic SNPs between the two Scandinavian populations were validated by genotyping 47 individuals from each end of the species' Scandinavian distribution range. Sixty-nine of these SNPs were significantly (p < 0.05) differentiated (mean FST_173_loci = 0.065, FST_69_loci = 0.140). Using these validated SNPs, individuals were assigned with high probability (≥ 94%) to their populations of origin.

Conclusions: Goldsinny wrasse displays a highly polymorphic genome, and substantial population genomic structure. Diversifying selection likely affects population structuring globally and within Scandinavia. The diagnostic loci identified now provide a promising and cost-efficient tool to investigate goldsinny wrasse populations further.

Keywords: Assignment; Ctenolabrus rupestris; Marker validation; Population genomics; Resequencing; SNP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Genetic Drift*
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Genome
  • Perciformes / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
  • Scotland
  • Spain