Blocking the interaction between cell-surface receptors and their ligands is a proven therapeutic strategy. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are key cell-surface receptors that regulate numerous pathophysiological processes, and their large extracellular regions (ECRs) mediate ligand binding and function. The aGPCR GPR56/ADGRG1 regulates central nervous system myelination and melanoma progression by interacting with its ligand, tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2), but the molecular basis for this interaction is largely undefined. Here, we show that the C-terminal portion of TG2 directly interacted with the GPR56 ECR with high-nanomolar affinity, and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify a patch of conserved residues on the pentraxin/laminin-neurexin-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-like (PLL) domain of GPR56 as the TG2 binding site. Importantly, we also show that the GPR56-TG2 interaction was blocked by previously-reported synthetic proteins, termed monobodies, that bind the GPR56 ECR in a domain- and species-specific manner. This work provides unique tools to modulate aGPCR-ligand binding and establishes a foundation for the development of aGPCR-targeted therapeutics.