Objectives: Altered enteroendocrine cell (EEC) function in obesity and type 2 diabetes is not fully understood. Understanding the transcriptional program that controls EEC differentiation is important because some EEC types harbor significant therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes.
Methods: EEC isolation from jejunum of obese individuals with (ObD) or without (Ob) type 2 diabetes was obtained with a new method of cell sorting. EEC transcriptional profiles were established by RNA-sequencing in a first group of 14 Ob and 13 ObD individuals. EEC lineage and densities were studied in the jejunum of a second independent group of 37 Ob, 21 ObD and 22 non obese (NOb) individuals.
Results: The RNA seq analysis revealed a distinctive transcriptomic signature and a decreased differentiation program in isolated EEC from ObD compared to Ob individuals. In the second independent group of ObD, Ob and NOb individuals a decreased GLP-1 cell lineage and GLP-1 maturation from proglucagon, were observed in ObD compared to Ob individuals. Furthermore, jejunal density of GLP-1-positive cells was significantly reduced in ObD compared to Ob individuals.
Conclusions: These results highlight that the transcriptomic signature of EEC discriminate obese subjects according to their diabetic status. Furthermore, type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced GLP-1 cell differentiation and proglucagon maturation leading to low GLP-1-cell density in human obesity. These mechanisms could account for the decrease plasma GLP-1 observed in metabolic diseases.