Development of a microchip electrophoresis-based, high-throughput PCR-RFLP method to type Tax 233 variants of bovine leukemia virus in Japan

Arch Virol. 2020 Dec;165(12):2961-2966. doi: 10.1007/s00705-020-04842-w. Epub 2020 Oct 10.


Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). We used microchip electrophoresis in combination with automatic image analysis to develop a novel high-throughput PCR-RFLP to type the gene sequences that encode BLV Tax 233. This method revealed that 233L-Tax is more prevalent than 233P-Tax in cattle in Japan. The proportion infected with BLV carrying the gene encoding 233L-Tax was significantly higher in Holstein cattle than in Japanese Black cattle. Holsteins infected with BLV encoding 233L-Tax had higher proviral loads than did Holsteins infected with BLV encoding 233P-Tax and Japanese Blacks infected with BLV encoding 233L-Tax or 233P-Tax. The novel method developed in this study will be a useful tool for identifying cattle harboring BLV with a higher risk of EBL and viral transmission.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Electrophoresis, Microchip / instrumentation*
  • Enzootic Bovine Leukosis / virology
  • Gene Products, tax / genetics*
  • Japan
  • Leukemia Virus, Bovine / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  • Viral Load


  • Gene Products, tax