Identification of a non-host semiochemical from miniature pinscher, Canis lupus familiaris, that repels Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae)

Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2021 Jan;12(1):101582. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2020.101582. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Abstract

It is already known that the beagle breed of domestic dogs produces semiochemicals capable of repelling the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.). With a view to discovering new non-host semiochemicals as tick repellents, we compared the semiochemicals produced by a putative tick-resistant breed of dog, miniature pinscher, with known tick-resistant (beagle) and tick-susceptible (English cocker spaniel) breeds. Two non-host compounds produced by beagles, i.e. 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, were shown to be present in samples collected from all three breeds. Furthermore, two compounds, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, were found in higher amounts in samples collected from miniature pinscher dogs. The mean amounts of benzaldehyde, 2-hexanone and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were similar for beagles and miniature pinschers (P > 0.05) and higher than the means observed for cocker spaniels (P < 0.05), whereas the mean amount of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one produced by miniature pinschers was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for the other breeds of dogs. In Petri-dish assays with adult R. sanguineus s.l., 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one was repellent for all observation periods evaluated for the two highest concentrations (0.100 and 0.200 mg.cm-2, P < 0.01). The obtained results support our hypothesis that miniature pinschers are a tick-resistant dog breed and agree with previous observations of miniature pinschers being the breed least parasitized by ticks. Furthermore, the non-host semiochemical 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one has potential to be developed for use as a repellent for the protection of susceptible dogs from R. sanguineus s.l. ticks.

Keywords: 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; Allomone; Brown dog tick; Miniature pinscher.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acaricides / analysis
  • Acaricides / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Benzaldehydes / analysis
  • Benzaldehydes / pharmacology
  • Benzene Derivatives / analysis
  • Benzene Derivatives / pharmacology
  • Dog Diseases / parasitology
  • Dog Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Dogs
  • Methyl n-Butyl Ketone / analysis
  • Methyl n-Butyl Ketone / pharmacology
  • Pheromones / analysis
  • Pheromones / pharmacology*
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus / drug effects*
  • Tick Control / instrumentation*
  • Tick Infestations / parasitology
  • Tick Infestations / prevention & control
  • Tick Infestations / veterinary*

Substances

  • Acaricides
  • Benzaldehydes
  • Benzene Derivatives
  • Pheromones
  • pseudocumene
  • Methyl n-Butyl Ketone
  • benzaldehyde