Clinical and molecular spectra of BRAF-associated RASopathy

J Hum Genet. 2021 Apr;66(4):389-399. doi: 10.1038/s10038-020-00852-3. Epub 2020 Oct 10.


Noonan syndrome (NS) and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome are the most common subtypes of RASopathy. As an effector of Ras, BRAF is one of the molecules responsible for RASopathy. We investigated the phenotypic and genotypic features of 26 patients with BRAF-associated RASopathy. The clinical diagnoses were CFC (n = 21, 80.8%), NS (n = 3, 11.5%), NS/CFC (n = 1, 3.8%), and undefined syndromic intellectual disability (ID) (n = 1, 3.8%). The mostly shared phenotypes were ID (90.5%), cutaneous manifestations (84.6%), congenital heart defects (76.9%), short stature (76.9%), and dysmorphic features such as short neck (65.4%) and low-set ears (65.4%). Importantly, moderate to severe ID (57.1%) and epilepsy (26.9%) were noted. Eighteen different missense mutations were found, including a novel mutation, p.Phe498Tyr. p.Gln257Arg (n = 9, 34.6%) was the most common mutation, and the mutations were clustered in the cysteine-rich domain or protein kinase domain. A review of previously reported cases along with our findings revealed the existence of multiple sub-phenotypes of RASopathy within a single genotype, indicating that BRAF-associated RASopathy is not variant-specific. Our study further delineated the diverse and expanded clinical phenotypes of BRAF-associated RASopathy with their molecular genetic characteristics.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Ectodermal Dysplasia / genetics
  • Ectodermal Dysplasia / pathology*
  • Facies
  • Failure to Thrive / genetics
  • Failure to Thrive / pathology*
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Noonan Syndrome / genetics
  • Noonan Syndrome / pathology*
  • Phenotype
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics*


  • BRAF protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf

Supplementary concepts

  • Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome