Outcome-dependent sampling designs such as the case-control or case-cohort design are widely used in epidemiological studies for their outstanding cost-effectiveness. In this article, we propose and develop a smoothed weighted Gehan estimating equation approach for inference in an accelerated failure time model under a general failure time outcome-dependent sampling scheme. The proposed estimating equation is continuously differentiable and can be solved by the standard numerical methods. In addition to developing asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator, we also propose and investigate a new optimal power-based subsamples allocation criteria in the proposed design by maximizing the power function of a significant test. Simulation results show that the proposed estimator is more efficient than other existing competing estimators and the optimal power-based subsamples allocation will provide an ODS design that yield improved power for the test of exposure effect. We illustrate the proposed method with a data set from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study to evaluate the relationship between exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and women's subfecundity.
Keywords: Accelerated failure time model; Induced smoothing; Outcome-dependent sampling; Survival data; Wald statistic.