An update on colorectal cancer microenvironment, epigenetic and immunotherapy

Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Dec;89(Pt A):107041. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107041. Epub 2020 Oct 9.


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered as the second most common cancer worldwide. For the past few years, the role of immunotherapy has been extensively studied and it has been demonstrated that its related approaches, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors, are promising. In addition to identifying molecular characteristics of tumor cells, recent studies are mainly focused on the profiling of tumor microenvironment. Dissecting immune status of a tumor is interesting, since development of a tumor is associated with deficiencies relate to immune defense, immune surveillance and immune hemostasis. In this review, we discuss main obstacles of immunotherapy including immunosuppressive niche and low immunogenicity of CRC as well as reviewing current achievements in immunotherapy.

Keywords: Cancer microenvironment; Colorectal cancer; Epigenetic; Immune checkpoint inhibitor; Immunotherapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Tumor Microenvironment*