INTEDE: interactome of drug-metabolizing enzymes

Nucleic Acids Res. 2021 Jan 8;49(D1):D1233-D1243. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa755.


Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are critical determinant of drug safety and efficacy, and the interactome of DMEs has attracted extensive attention. There are 3 major interaction types in an interactome: microbiome-DME interaction (MICBIO), xenobiotics-DME interaction (XEOTIC) and host protein-DME interaction (HOSPPI). The interaction data of each type are essential for drug metabolism, and the collective consideration of multiple types has implication for the future practice of precision medicine. However, no database was designed to systematically provide the data of all types of DME interactions. Here, a database of the Interactome of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes (INTEDE) was therefore constructed to offer these interaction data. First, 1047 unique DMEs (448 host and 599 microbial) were confirmed, for the first time, using their metabolizing drugs. Second, for these newly confirmed DMEs, all types of their interactions (3359 MICBIOs between 225 microbial species and 185 DMEs; 47 778 XEOTICs between 4150 xenobiotics and 501 DMEs; 7849 HOSPPIs between 565 human proteins and 566 DMEs) were comprehensively collected and then provided, which enabled the crosstalk analysis among multiple types. Because of the huge amount of accumulated data, the INTEDE made it possible to generalize key features for revealing disease etiology and optimizing clinical treatment. INTEDE is freely accessible at:

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / enzymology
  • DNA Methylation
  • Databases, Factual*
  • Drugs, Investigational / metabolism*
  • Enzymes / classification
  • Enzymes / metabolism*
  • Fungi / enzymology
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inactivation, Metabolic / genetics*
  • Internet
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Microbiota / genetics
  • Prescription Drugs / metabolism*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / metabolism
  • Software
  • Xenobiotics / metabolism*


  • Drugs, Investigational
  • Enzymes
  • Histones
  • Prescription Drugs
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • Xenobiotics