An Intervention to Promote Adherence to Glasses Wearing Among Urban Public Elementary School Students: Associations With Classroom Behavior

J Sch Nurs. 2020 Oct 13;1059840520963647. doi: 10.1177/1059840520963647. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Glasses wearing at school remains low even when glasses are provided. This study investigated whether a classroom intervention to promote glasses wearing was associated with increased glasses wearing and improved classroom behavior. A pretest, posttest design was implemented with 44 students in Grades 1-4 at an urban public elementary school. Over 5 weeks, teachers encouraged eyeglass wearing through a classroom tracker, verbal reminders, and incentives. Glasses wearing and student behavior were monitored using the Direct Behavior Rating Scale of academic engagement and behavior for 13 weeks, including 4 weeks before and after the intervention. Glasses wearing increased from 56% to 73% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.08, 0.26]) in the first 2 weeks of the intervention, but not after a spring recess. The intervention was associated with significantly improved academic engagement (4.31%, 95% CI [2.17, 6.45]), respect (3.55%, 95% CI [1.77, 5.34]), and disruption (-4.28%, 95% CI [-6.51, -2.06]) compared to baseline. Higher academic engagement and disruption persisted 4 weeks after the intervention ended. A classroom-based glasses tracking and incentive system is associated with improved eyeglass wearing and classroom behavior among elementary students. A longer term randomized trial is needed to confirm these promising results.

Keywords: coordinated school health program; elementary; evidence-based practice; health and wellness; program development/evaluation; school nurse; school-based clinics.