Urine and stone analysis for the investigation of the renal stone former: a consensus conference

Urolithiasis. 2021 Feb;49(1):1-16. doi: 10.1007/s00240-020-01217-3. Epub 2020 Oct 13.


The Consensus Group deliberated on a number of questions concerning urine and stone analysis over a period of months, and then met to develop consensus. The Group concluded that analyses of urine and stones should be routine in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary stone diseases. At present, the 24-h urine is the most useful type of urine collection, and accepted methods for analysis are described. Patient education is also important for obtaining a proper urine sample. Graphical methods for reporting urine analysis results can be helpful both for the physician and for educating the patient as to proper dietary changes that could be beneficial. Proper analysis of stones is also essential for diagnosis and management of patients. The Consensus Group also agreed that research has shown that evaluation of urinary crystals could be very valuable, but the Group also recognizes that existing methods for assessment of crystalluria do not allow this to be part of stone treatment in many places.

Keywords: Crystalluria; Nephrolithiasis; Stone analysis; Urine analysis.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference

MeSH terms

  • Calcium Oxalate / analysis
  • Consensus*
  • Crystallization
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry
  • Kidney Calculi / diagnosis*
  • Kidney Calculi / etiology
  • Kidney Calculi / urine
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Specimen Handling / standards
  • Urinalysis / standards*


  • Calcium Oxalate