Progesterone receptor (PR) from a human endometrial carcinoma (EnCa 101) grown in nude mice consists of two hormone-binding proteins with mol wt around 116,000 and 85,000. To generate monoclonal antibodies against this receptor, PR was partially purified from EnCa 101 and used to immunize Robertsonian mice. Immune mouse spleens were fused with HL-1 Friendly myeloma-653 cells, and hybridomas were screened by solid phase dot-blot assay and double antibody precipitation. Seven stable hybridomas were obtained, designated hPRa 1-7. Subisotyping revealed that hPRa 1 and 6 were immunoglobulin G2b, while the remainder were immunoglobulin G1. Ultracentrifugation in high salt sucrose gradients showed that six of the seven antibodies effected a shift of [3H]progestin-labeled PR from EnCa 101; only hPRa 4 was ineffective in this regard. Protein blots of EnCa 101 cytosols and DEAE eluates revealed that hPRa 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 recognized both PR proteins equally. hPRa 2 recognized principally the 116,000 mol wt PR protein; it recognized the lower mol wt PR protein very poorly if at all, whereas hPRa 6 recognized only the 116,000 mol wt protein. Interestingly, the latter was consistently detected as a closely migrating triplet. Immunolocalization of PR by hPRa 1-7 in tissue sections was confined to nuclei of target tissues and varied in intensity: hPRa 7 greater than 3 = 5 greater than 6 = 2 greater than 1 greater than 4. In proliferative phase uterus, the intensity of staining was ranked: endometrial gland nuclei (3+) greater than myometrial cell nuclei (2-3+) greater than endometrial stromal cell nuclei (0-1+). Thus, seven monoclonal antibodies directed against human PR have been prepared, and their suitability for the study of PR by biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques has been demonstrated.