Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis of Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome: Lessons from Targeted and Natural Mutations in Animal Models

J Dev Biol. 2020 Oct 9;8(4):25. doi: 10.3390/jdb8040025.


Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC; MIM ID #225500) is a rare congenital disease with an occurrence of 1 in 60,000. It is characterized by remarkable skeletal dysplasia, such as short limbs, ribs and polydactyly, and orofacial anomalies. With two of three patients first noted as being offspring of consanguineous marriage, this autosomal recessive disease results from mutations in one of two causative genes: EVC or EVC2/LIMBIN. The recent identification and manipulation of genetic homologs in animals has deepened our understanding beyond human case studies and provided critical insight into disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the utility of animal-based studies of EVC by summarizing: (1) molecular biology of EVC and EVC2/LIMBIN, (2) human disease signs, (3) dysplastic limb development, (4) craniofacial anomalies, (5) tooth anomalies, (6) tracheal cartilage abnormalities, and (7) EVC-like disorders in non-human species.

Keywords: EVC2; Ellis-van Creveld syndrome; LIMBIN; ciliopathy; craniofacial.

Publication types

  • Review