Mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), following the transient deprivation of blood flow to the gut, triggers an acute flogistic process involving the disruption of endothelial and epithelial barriers integrity, the activation of immune cells, and the abundant release of inflammatory mediators. Among them, the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is involved in maintaining epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity and in governing the migration of immune cells through the interaction with S1P1-5 receptors. Therefore, the present work aims to investigate the involvement of S1P signaling in intestinal I/R-induced injury by studying the effects of FTY720, the non-selective S1P1,3-5 agonist, and comparing them with the responses to ozanimod, selective S1P1,5 agonist, in a murine model of gut I/R. Intestinal edema, gut and lung neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress were evaluated through biochemical and morphological assays. The collected results highlight the protective action of FTY720 against the inflammatory cascade elicited by mesenteric I/R injury, mainly through the control of vascular barrier integrity. While these beneficial effects were mimicked by ozanimod and can be therefore attributed largely to the effects exerted by FTY720 on S1P1, the recruitment of myeloid cells to the injured areas, limited by FTY720 but not by ozanimod, rather suggests the involvement of other receptor subtypes.
Keywords: FTY720; S1P1; gut hypoxia-reperfusion; inflammation; ozanimod; sphingosine-1-phosphate.