Monoclonal antibodies were produced against a suspension of formaldehyde fixed human epidermal cells. The supernatant fluid of one clone (BG3C8) yielded a bright immunofluorescent staining of basal cells both in cryostat sections of human split skin and in preparations of purified basal cells. As determined by one- and two-dimensional gel immunoblotting of epidermal basal cell proteins the antibody recognized a minor basic polypeptide of 55,000 apparent molecular weight that was not present in extracts of cultured cell lines of epithelial, fibroblast and lymphoid origin. The distribution of the 55,000 molecular weight protein in normal human tissue was determined by immunohistological staining of cryostat tissue sections that included: central nervous, endocrine, female and male reproductive, alimentary, lymphatic-haemopoietic, respiratory and urinary systems, skin and its appendages, mesenchymal tissue (bone, cartilage, muscle, connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves and synovia) as well as placenta and umbilical cord. The results showed a restricted distribution of this antigen which was found only in basal cells of most stratified or pseudostratified epithelia and in myoepithelial cells. This antibody may be useful in the study of normal and pathological differentiation in various epithelial disorders.