DNA polymerase III holoenzyme has been purified from Escherichia coli HMS-83, using, as an assay, the conversion of coliphage G4 single-stranded DNA to the duplex replicative form. The holoenzyme consists of at least four different subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta of 140,000, 40,000, 52,000, and 32,000 daltons, respectively. The alpha subunit is DNA polymerase III, the dnaE gene product. The holoenzyme has been resolved by phosphocellulose chromatography into an alpha - gamma - delta complex and a subunit beta (copolymerase III*); neither possesses detectable activity in the G4 system but together reconstitute holoenzyme-like activity. The alpha - gamma - delta complex has been further resolved to yield a gamma - delta complex which reconstitutes alpha - gamma - delta activity when added to DNA polymerase III. The gamma - delta complex contains a product of the dnaZ gene and has been purified from a strain which contains a ColE1-dnaZ hybrid plasmid.