Rnd proteins constitute a subfamily of Rho GTPases represented in mammals by Rnd1, Rnd2 and Rnd3. Despite their GTPase structure, their specific feature is the inability to hydrolyse GTP-bound nucleotide. This aspect makes them atypical among Rho GTPases. Rnds are regulated for their expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels and they are activated through post-translational modifications and interactions with other proteins. Rnd proteins are mainly involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell proliferation. Whereas Rnd3 is ubiquitously expressed, Rnd1 and 2 are tissue-specific. Increasing data has described their important role during development and diseases. Herein, we describe their involvement in physiological and pathological conditions with a focus on the neuronal and vascular systems, and summarize their implications in tumorigenesis.
Keywords: Rnd; cancer; neuronal system; pathophysiology; vascular system.