Pathophysiological functions of Rnd proteins

Small GTPases. 2021 Sep-Nov;12(5-6):336-357. doi: 10.1080/21541248.2020.1829914. Epub 2020 Oct 15.


Rnd proteins constitute a subfamily of Rho GTPases represented in mammals by Rnd1, Rnd2 and Rnd3. Despite their GTPase structure, their specific feature is the inability to hydrolyse GTP-bound nucleotide. This aspect makes them atypical among Rho GTPases. Rnds are regulated for their expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels and they are activated through post-translational modifications and interactions with other proteins. Rnd proteins are mainly involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell proliferation. Whereas Rnd3 is ubiquitously expressed, Rnd1 and 2 are tissue-specific. Increasing data has described their important role during development and diseases. Herein, we describe their involvement in physiological and pathological conditions with a focus on the neuronal and vascular systems, and summarize their implications in tumorigenesis.

Keywords: Rnd; cancer; neuronal system; pathophysiology; vascular system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Neoplasms / physiopathology*
  • Nervous System Diseases / enzymology
  • Nervous System Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Vascular Diseases / enzymology
  • Vascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism*


  • RND1 protein, human
  • RND2 protein, human
  • RND3 protein, human
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins

Grants and funding

SB is supported by a post-doctoral fellowship from Fondation ARC. RA is supported by Rita Levi Montalcini funding from MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research). EP’s work was supported by ANR (ANR-19-CE16-0014-01). VM’s work was supported by grants from La Ligue contre le Cancer comité de Gironde and from Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (équipe FRM 2018); Agence Nationale de la Recherche[ANR-19-CE16-0014-01]; Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer; Ligue Contre le Cancer [Comité Gironde]; Rita Levi Montalcini.