Chemical and Physical Characterization of the Hackberry (Celtis australis) Seed Oil: Analysis of Tocopherols, Sterols, ECN and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

J Oleo Sci. 2020 Nov 1;69(11):1359-1366. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess20128. Epub 2020 Oct 15.


For the very first time, the nutritional and physicochemical properties of the oil extracted from hackberry Celtis australis fruit were investigated with the aim of possible applications of such wild fruit oil. The physicochemical properties such as peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were examined extensively. The obtained results showed that peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were found to be 4.9 meq O2/kg fat, 0.9 mg KOH/g fat, 193.6 mg KOH/g fat, 141.52 mg I2/g fat and ~5%, respectively. The predominant fatty acid found in this wild fruit is linoleic acid which was calculated to be 73.38%±1.24. In addition, gamma-tocopherol (87%) and β-sitosterol (81.2%±1.08) were the major tocopherol and sterol compositions found in Celtis australis seed oil. Moreover, equivalent carbon number (ECN) analysis has indicated that the three linoleic acids are the main composition of the triacylglycerols extracted from Celtis australis. Also, the high value of omega 6 and β-sitosterol make this oil applicable in cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: Celtis australis seed oil; fatty acid; physical and chemical properties; phytosterols; tocopherols.

MeSH terms

  • Biopharmaceutics
  • Carbon / analysis*
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Cosmetics
  • Esters / analysis*
  • Fatty Acids / analysis*
  • Linoleic Acid / analysis*
  • Peroxides / analysis
  • Phytosterols / analysis*
  • Plant Oils / chemistry*
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Sitosterols / analysis
  • Tocopherols / analysis*
  • Triglycerides / analysis*
  • Triglycerides / chemistry
  • Ulmaceae / chemistry*
  • gamma-Tocopherol / analysis


  • Cosmetics
  • Esters
  • Fatty Acids
  • Peroxides
  • Phytosterols
  • Plant Oils
  • Sitosterols
  • Triglycerides
  • gamma-sitosterol
  • Carbon
  • gamma-Tocopherol
  • Linoleic Acid
  • Tocopherols