Considerations for Clinical Use of Concentrated Growth Factor in Maxillofacial Regenerative Medicine

J Craniofac Surg. 2021 Jun 1;32(4):1316-1321. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007182.


Different strategies have been utilized to facilitate mineralized/soft tissues. Concentrated growth factor (CGF) emerges as a promising biomaterial for regenerative therapy due to high levels of platelets, growth factors, and nucleated cells entrapped in the fibrin scaffold. This review aimed to collect extensive studies on CGF used in maxillofacial regenerative medicine, discussing current obstacles, and expressing some considerations of CGF use. Articles were retrieved systematically without time limitation. In total, 27 human studies were included and separated accordingly. In general, CGF has been most evaluated in implant related therapy and maxillofacial bone regeneration where a majority of articles have revealed favorable outcomes. Little studies have supported the effects on improving probing periodontal depth reductions and clinical attachment level gains for intrabony and furcation defect regeneration. Very little data with high-level evidence was available directly to investigate its effects on the soft tissue regeneration and postoperative complications reduction. The evidence supporting the clinical efficacy of CGF in maxillofacial regenerative medicine is limited. Some conflicting results are worrisome. In addition, the characterization of CGF preparation protocols and CGF's components was not performed in most studies. Further studies should make a consensus on standardized end-product of CGF including characterization of protocols and optimal ratio of CGF' components. Defined algorithms and evidence-based protocols for the clinical use of CGF should be also available.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Regeneration
  • Fibrin
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Regenerative Medicine*
  • Wound Healing


  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Fibrin