Introduction: This post-hoc analysis of the FRAME study investigated the long-term efficacy and safety of romosozumab followed by denosumab in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis at high fracture risk.
Materials and methods: Data from Japanese women with a high fracture risk participating in the international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 FRAME study were analysed. High risk of fracture was defined as ≥ 1 fragility fracture with bone mineral density (BMD) ≤ - 2.5 standard deviations [SD], > 2 prevalent vertebral fractures, prevalent semiquantitative grade 3 vertebral fracture, or lumbar spine BMD < - 3.3 SD. Endpoints included incidence of new vertebral fracture at 12, 24 and 36 months and percentage change from baseline in BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck.
Results: 187 Japanese subjects at high risk of fracture were enrolled in FRAME. Incidence of new vertebral fractures was lower with romosozumab/denosumab vs. placebo/denosumab at 12, 24 and 36 months (relative risk reduction at all timepoints: 84%; p = 0.056). BMD increases at 12, 24 and 36 months were greater in subjects receiving romosozumab/denosumab than placebo/denosumab (lumbar spine: 16.3%, 21.5% and 23.2% vs 0.4%, 8.1% and 10.4%; total hip: 4.9%, 7.9% and 8.9% vs 0.4%, 2.8% and 4.1%; femoral neck: 4.8%, 7.6% and 8.1% vs 0.3%, 3.3% and 3.7%, respectively; all p < 0.001 vs placebo/denosumab). Adverse events were generally balanced between groups.
Conclusion: Romosozumab/denosumab in Japanese subjects at high risk of fracture resulted in significant BMD gains and numerically lower vertebral fracture rate vs. placebo/denosumab at all timepoints measured.
Keywords: Bone mineral density; Denosumab; Fracture risk; Osteoporosis; Romosozumab.