The majority of the population in Bangladesh uses traditional plant-based medicines to manage various ailments, including central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This review presents ethnobotanical information and relevant scientific studies on plants used in traditional healthcare for the management of various CNS disorders in Bangladesh. The information on the medicinal plants of Bangladesh effective against CNS disorders published in scientific journals, books, and reports was compiled from different electronic databases using specific key words. The present article provides comprehensive information on a total of 224 medicinal plant species belonging to 81 families used for the treatment of CNS disorders by the various peoples of Bangladesh. In total, we reviewed more than 290 relevant papers. In this study, leaves were found as the most often used plant organ, followed by roots, fruits, whole plants, barks, seeds, stems, rhizomes, and flowers. The Fabaceae family contributes the highest number of used species, followed by Rubiaceae, Lamiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Vitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The most frequently used species (in decreasing order) are Asparagus racemosus, Centella asiatica, Stephania japonica, Aegle marmelos, Coccinia grandis, Tabernaemontana divaricata, Bacopa monnieri, Abroma augusta, and Scoparia dulcis. This review may serve as a starting point for a rational search for neuroactive natural products against CNS disorders within the Flora of Bangladesh.
Keywords: CNS disorder; Ethnopharmacology; Medicinal plants; Review; Traditional plants.