Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for more than 75% of renal cell carcinoma. Nearly 25% of ccRCC patients were diagnosed with metastasis. Though the genomic profile of ccRCC has been widely studied, the difference between localized and metastatic ccRCC was not clarified. Primary tumor samples and matched whole blood were collected from 106 sporadic patients diagnosed with renal clear cell carcinoma at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 2017 to November 2019, and 17 of them were diagnosed with metastasis. A hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing of 618 cancer-related genes was performed to investigate the somatic and germline variants, tumor mutation burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI). Five genes with significantly different prevalence were identified in the metastatic group, especially TOP1 (17.65% vs. 0%) and SNCAIP (17.65% vs. 0%). The altered frequency of PBRM1 (0% vs. 27%) and BAP1 (24% vs. 10%) differed between the metastatic and nonmetastatic groups, which may relate to the prognosis. Of these 106 patients, 42 patients (39.62%) had at least one alteration in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes, including 58.82% of metastatic ccRCC patients and 35.96% of ccRCC patients without metastasis. Ten pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were identified in 11 sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients (10.38%), including rarely reported ATM (n=1), MUTYH (n=1), NBN (n=1), RAD51D (n=1), and BRCA2 (n=1). No significant difference in the ratio of P/LP variant carriers or TMB was identified between the metastatic and nonmetastatic groups. We found a unique genomic feature of Chinese metastatic ccRCC patients with a higher prevalence of alterations in DDR, TOP1, and SNCAIP. Further investigated studies and drug development are needed in the future.
Copyright © 2020 Hui Meng et al.