Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine has recently been shown to be capable of inducing antibodies to H. influenzae in infants. In an evaluation of its clinical efficacy, 60,000 children were enrolled in an open trial in Finland. Children born on odd-numbered days between October 1, 1985, and September 30, 1986, received the vaccine at 3, 4, 6, and 14 months; those born on even-numbered days served as controls. The geometric mean antibody titer measured in a cohort of 99 children rose from a prevaccination level of 0.08 microgram per milliliter at three months of age to 0.42 microgram per milliliter at seven months. Only minor adverse reactions were reported. Up to February 1987, two cases of invasive H. influenzae infection had occurred among the children who had received three doses of vaccine, whereas 12 cases had occurred among the controls (P = 0.0005 by Poisson one-tailed test). The rate of short-term (average follow-up time, five months) protection provided by this conjugate vaccine in infancy was thus 83 percent.