Neoantigens arise from mutations in cancer cells and are important targets of T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Here, we report the first open-label, phase Ib clinical trial of a personalized neoantigen-based vaccine, NEO-PV-01, in combination with PD-1 blockade in patients with advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, or bladder cancer. This analysis of 82 patients demonstrated that the regimen was safe, with no treatment-related serious adverse events observed. De novo neoantigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were observed post-vaccination in all of the patients. The vaccine-induced T cells had a cytotoxic phenotype and were capable of trafficking to the tumor and mediating cell killing. In addition, epitope spread to neoantigens not included in the vaccine was detected post-vaccination. These data support the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen in patients with advanced solid tumors (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02897765).
Keywords: NEO-PV-01; T cell; anti-PD-1; cancer vaccine; checkpoint inhibitor; epitope spread; immunotherapy; metastatic cancer; neoantigen; personalized vaccine.
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