Cerebral venous thrombosis in a sub-saharan African country: A preliminary monocentric study of a 70 case series at the neurology department of Fann teaching hospital in Dakar - Senegal

Rev Neurol (Paris). 2021 Jun;177(6):670-675. doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2020.07.012. Epub 2020 Oct 13.


Introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) are underdiagnosed in sub-saharan Africa where publications are uncommon. Our study aim was to describe the CVT diagnostic and therapeutic features through a senegalese case series.

Patients and method: A monocentric retrospective and prospective study was conducted at the adult Neurology department of Fann Teaching Hospital in Dakar (Senegal), between January 01, 2013 and April 30, 2020. It had included all CVT cases diagnosed by neurovascular imaging.

Results: Seventy CVT cases were collected including 48 women (68.6%). The average age of the patients was 35.2±14 years. The main neurological signs were headache (92.8%) and motor deficit (41.4%), with subacute onset in 67.2% of cases. The superior sagittal sinus (54.3%) and the transverse sinus (38.6%) were the most affected with multiple involvements in 27 patients (38.6%). Thirty patients (42.8%) had indirect parenchymal signs such as venous infarction (15.7%), cerebral edema (11.4%) or intracerebral hemorrhage (12.8%). The etiological factors were mostly infectious (41.4%) with meningoencephalitis (12.8%) and otorhinolaryngological infection (10%). Gyneco-obstetric factors (27%) and Behçet's disease (7%) were the main aseptic factors. In the short-term clinical course, curative anticoagulation (98.6%) had enabled a favourable outcome (mRS 0-1) in half of the patients.

Conclusion: Our study, the largest series in sub-saharan Africa to this date, confirms that CVT is a young women disease. Infectious etiology is the most frequent at the Fann national teaching hospital (41.4% in Dakar against 6.5% in Germaine Bousser's series) even if the etiological assessment is limited by financial constraints (no coagulopathy/thrombophilia check-up).

Keywords: Cerebral venous thrombosis; Meningoencephalitis; Neuro-Behçet; Senegal; Sub-saharan; Sub-saharan Africa.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Africa South of the Sahara
  • Female
  • Hospitals, Teaching
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Thrombosis*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Senegal
  • Venous Thrombosis*
  • Young Adult