A consecutive series of newly-diagnosed patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) was compared to two independent control groups chosen from the same patient population for the presence of a Type A behavioral pattern based on the Jenkins Activity Survey. The patients selected as matched controls had painless, reduced central vision and other chorioretinal diseases (Group I), or non-chorioretinal ocular conditions (Group II). The Type A behavior was significantly more frequent in study patients than in either Control Group I (X2 = 6.1 and P less than 0.025) or Control Group II patients (X2 = 17.7 and P less than 0.001). When both control groups were combined for comparison to the CSP patients, there was also a highly significant difference with regard to Type A behavior (X2 = 14.1 and P less than 0.001). A comparison of Control Group I with Control Group II revealed no significant difference in Type A behavior. Subfactor analysis of the Type A behavior pattern was also studied. The results of this clinical study were used in conjunction with experimental evidence linking catecholamines with CSP in developing a multifactorial etiologic hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the eyes as an organ system, and the macula as an ultimate target area, can be intermittently or continuously stimulated adversely by Type A behavior and its physiological consequences, most notably a sympathetic discharge. The multifactorial concept alludes to other potential risk factors such as age, race, sex, refractive state, or unknown tissue susceptabilities. The pathogenesis implies an inter-relationship between finely balanced components of a complex biopsychological system involving an individual's genetic endowment, his environment, and his behavioral pattern. The concept also offers new possible lines of investigation for the treatment of CSP, utilizing pharmacological regulators and for its prevention through early identification of CSP-prone individuals. A review of the pertinent cardiovasculature literature linking the Type A behavior with coronary artery disease and the significant papers in the ophthalmic literature on central serous pigment epitheliopathy are included in the discussion.