Introduction: For pediatric patients, bone-conduction hearing devices (BCHD) have demonstrated excellent outcomes. Unique to this population, BCHD implant surgeries can be technically challenging in children due to thinner, developing bone and syndromes with atypical anatomy. Image-guided surgical navigation (IGSN) clarifies underlying skull structure, potentially improving outcomes. IGSN is commonly used in otorhinolaryngologic surgeries, but current use in BCHD placement surgeries remains unprecedented. We report favorable results of IGSN in BCHD implantation for three children with complex otologic anatomy: two syndromic patients with variable temporal bone thickness, and one with prior mastoidectomies. The three patients each underwent a successful hearing implant surgery without significant intra- or post-surgical complications. All patients had good audiologic outcomes.
Methods and materials: We report using IGSN to assist in BAHA or BONEBRIDGE™ implant surgery for three medically complicated patients. For stereotactic imaging, the patients each received pre-operative high-resolution CT scans using the paranasal sinus fusion protocol without contrast. The first patient was a 6-year-old male with CHARGE-associated abnormal temporal bone anatomy, atretic left auditory nerve, and bilateral chronic tympanic membrane perforation and otorrhea resulting in bilateral mixed conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. The patient thus was unable to consistently tolerate hearing aids. The second patient was an 18-year-old male with Rosai-Dorfman disease, history of bilateral chronic mastoiditis and middle ear infections, bilateral mastoidectomies, and bilateral malleus and incus removal resulting in mixed conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. The third patient was an 11-year-old male with Treacher Collins Syndrome, bilateral microtia, and bilateral atresia of the external auditory canals resulting in bilateral conductive hearing loss.
Results: The patients each underwent a successful hearing implant surgery without significant intra- or post-surgical complications. All patients had good audiologic outcomes.
Conclusion: Intraoperative IGSN can be a beneficial adjunct to BCHD implant placement surgeries for pediatric patients with abnormal temporal bone anatomy. IGSN can help identify the optimal surgical implantation sites, thereby reducing the risk for major morbidities associated with BCHD implantations. Furthermore, our findings expand application of IGSN use to placement of both BAHA and BONEBRIDGE™.
Keywords: BAHA®; BONEBRIDGE™; Bone conduction hearing device; Image-guided navigation; Otologic surgery.
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