Lymphatic malformations

Semin Pediatr Surg. 2020 Oct;29(5):150971. doi: 10.1016/j.sempedsurg.2020.150971. Epub 2020 Sep 16.


Lymphatic malformations are low-flow vascular malformations that arise due to errors in vascular development. Lymphatic malformations are benign and usually noted at birth or in the first few years of life. Lymphatic mass lesions are composed of varying size of cysts; this article focuses on discussion of cystic lymphatic malformations. Lymphatic malformations can occur throughout the body especially in lymphatic rich areas such as the cervical and axillary locations as well as the groin, trunk, retroperitoneum, extremities, abdominal or thoracic cavities. Treatment options vary based upon size of cysts and location. A multimodal and interdisciplinary approach is essential to care for patients with lymphatic malformations. Management options include observation, pharmacotherapy, sclerotherapy, and surgical procedures.

Keywords: Lymphatic malformation; Sclerotherapy; Surgery; Vascular anomaly; Vascular malformation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Lymphatic Abnormalities / complications
  • Lymphatic Abnormalities / diagnosis
  • Lymphatic Abnormalities / pathology
  • Lymphatic Abnormalities / therapy*
  • Vascular Malformations / complications
  • Vascular Malformations / diagnosis
  • Vascular Malformations / pathology
  • Vascular Malformations / therapy*