[Status epilepticus 2020]

Orv Hetil. 2020 Oct 18;161(42):1779-1786. doi: 10.1556/650.2020.31908. Print 2020 Oct 18.
[Article in Hu]

Abstract

Status epilepticus is the second most common neurological emergency with 15‒25% mortality rate. The principle of “time is brain” is also true for the treatment of status epilepticus: the earlier we start an adequate treatment, the more likely we are to stop progression. With treatment protocols based on high-level evidence, the progression of status epilepticus can be prevented in 75–90% of cases: we can avoid the induced coma or death. At the beginning of status epilepticus, parenteral benzodiazepine should be given immediately: intramuscular midazolam (0.2 mg/kg, max. 10 mg). In the case of easy veinous access, benzodiazepines can also be given intravenously. If the first benzodiazepine bolus does not stop the status epilepticus, we speak about established (benzodiazepine refractory) status epilepticus. In this case, a fast-acting non-benzodiazepine antiepileptic drug should be given: intravenous valproate (40 mg/kg, max. 3000 mg, within 10 minutes) or levetiracetam (60 mg/kg, max. 4500 mg, within 10 minutes). Refractory status epilepticus that persists for more than 1 hour and does not respond to either benzodiazepines or antiepileptics should be treated with general anesthesia (full narcosis). Induced coma can be achieved with fast-acting anesthetics, a combination of propofol with midazolam is the most frequently used one. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(42): 1779–1786.

Keywords: COVID–19; benzodiazepin; benzodiazepine; levetiracetam; levetiracetám; status epilepticus; valproate; valproát.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Status Epilepticus*