Brassica juncea (AABB), commonly referred to as mustard, is a natural allopolyploid of two diploid species-B. rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB). We report a highly contiguous genome assembly of an oleiferous type of B. juncea variety Varuna, an archetypical Indian gene pool line of mustard, with ~100× PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long reads providing contigs with an N50 value of >5 Mb. Contigs were corrected for the misassemblies and scaffolded with BioNano optical mapping. We also assembled a draft genome of B. nigra (BB) variety Sangam using Illumina short-read sequencing and Oxford Nanopore long reads and used it to validate the assembly of the B genome of B. juncea. Two different linkage maps of B. juncea, containing a large number of genotyping-by-sequencing markers, were developed and used to anchor scaffolds/contigs to the 18 linkage groups of the species. The resulting chromosome-scale assembly of B. juncea Varuna is a significant improvement over the previous draft assembly of B. juncea Tumida, a vegetable type of mustard. The assembled genome was characterized for transposons, centromeric repeats, gene content and gene block associations. In comparison to the A genome, the B genome contains a significantly higher content of LTR/Gypsy retrotransposons, distinct centromeric repeats and a large number of B. nigra specific gene clusters that break the gene collinearity between the A and the B genomes. The B. juncea Varuna assembly will be of major value to the breeding work on oleiferous types of mustard that are grown extensively in south Asia and elsewhere.
Keywords: Brassica juncea; Brassica nigra; breeding; evolution; gene blocks; genome assembly; long-read sequencing; oilseed mustard.
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