Pregnancy and Fetal Outcomes Following Exposure to Modafinil and Armodafinil During Pregnancy

JAMA Intern Med. 2021 Feb 1;181(2):275-277. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4009.


This cohort study uses data from the US Provigil/Nuvigil Pregnancy Registry to assess prevalence of fetal major congenital malformations after exposure to modafinil and armodafinil during pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Modafinil / adverse effects*
  • Narcolepsy / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy
  • Registries
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Wakefulness-Promoting Agents / adverse effects*


  • Wakefulness-Promoting Agents
  • Modafinil